Pigmentation, or hyperpigmentation, develops when the body makes too much melanin, causing discoloration on the skin. Factors that can trigger an increase in melanin production include sun exposure, hormonal influences, age and skin injuries or inflammation.
Age, Liver & Sun Spots
Age spots, also called liver spots or sunspots, are small, flat dark areas on the skin. They vary in size and usually appear on areas exposed to the sun, such as the face, hands, shoulders, and arms. They are very common in adults older than 50, but younger people can get them if they spend time in the sun.
Café Au Lait
Café-au-lait spots are pigmented birthmarks that appear as patches on your skin with a light to dark brown color that differs from the tone of the rest of your skin. The term “café-au-lait” means “coffee with milk” in French, which refers to the color of the birthmark, comparing it to the creamy tone of a cup of coffee mixed with milk.
Melasma is a condition in which brown or gray-brown patches appear on the face, most commonly on the cheeks, forehead, nose, and chin. Women are much more likely than men to develop this condition and it can be due to hormonal changes during pregnancy or from sun exposure.